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Transportation, Highway, Waterway, Airway

The term transport is derived from latin word Transportare that is trans over and portare means to carry thus transport means to carry from one place to another. the term transportation idicates a Means or system of convenience and it is thus an act of transporting. 

      It is difficult to imagine those all days when people lived in a distance and could not reach to their relatives easily. The introduction of transport facilities in the modern age has narrowed down the distance between various parts of the country or world.
                         Modes of transport
  1. Land transport 2. Water transport 3. Air transport


                          Classification of roads
       Roads are classified into following two broad categories
                          1. Urban 2. Non-urban
                               Urban Roads                                                                                        Urban roads are those which fall within the jurisdiction of municipalities and Cantonment boards. Urban roads are classified as follows:
   a) Expressways  b) Arterial streets  c) Sub – arterial Streets  d) Collector Streets  e) Local streets
 These are divided arterial highways for motor traffic and provided generally with grade separation at intersections. The main function of expressways is to provide for movement of heavy traffic at high speed.
                            Arterial Street:
 Arterial streets are streets primarily meant for through traffic usually on a continuous route. A properly developed and designated arterial street system would help to identify residential neighborhood industrial areas and commercial areas. These streets are spaced generally at less than 1.5 km in Central business areas and at 8 kilo metre or more in a sparsely developed Urban fringes.
                           Sub arterial streets:
 These are streets of some-what lower level of mobility than arterial streets. These are spaced at 0.5 km in the central business area and 3 to 5 in sub urban fringes.                                                                                                                                                                 Collector Streets:
 These are intended for collecting and distributing the traffic to and from local streets and also for providing access to arterial Streets
                            Local streets:
  local streets are primarily intended for access to residence business or other abutting property. These streets do not carry large volume of traffic.
                           Non urban roads:
  Non urban roads are those located in areas other than urban areas .They are also known as rural roads. The non urban roads are classified into 5 categories.
   1. National highways (N.H)   2. state Highways (S.H)                         3. Major district road (M.D.R)   4. Other district road (O.D.R)             5. Village road (V.R)
                          National highways:
  The main Highways running through the length and breadth of the country connecting state capitals, ports, foreign highways, large town etc. are known as National highways.
                          State highways:
  The Highways connecting district headquarters and important cities within the state or connecting them with National Highways of adjacent states are known as state highways.
                          Major district roads:
  The important roads within the district serving areas of production and markets connecting these with each other work with Highways and Railways are known as major district roads.
                          Other District roads:
   Other district roads are the roads serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to tensil headquarters, market centres etc. Tthese roads have some-what lower specifications than major district roads.
                           Village Roads:
   Village roads are the roads which connect villages were group of villages with each other or with nearest district road, main Highway, Railway etc. These roads are very important from the point of view of rural area development.
                           Water transport:

  The water transport possesses historical importance for making the cultural relations and growth of Civilization. It can be subdivided into two categories.
                         1. Inland water transportation:
   It is either in the form of river transportation or canal transportation..It is significant to note that river transportation became popular in our country since 1855 and many commercial towns came into existence on the banks of important rivers Like ganges. In inland water transportation, certain restrictions and guidance is necessary.
                          2. Ocean water transportation:
   It is adopted for trade and commerce. It is estimated that about 75% of International Trade is carried out by shipping. The development of navy force is intended for national defence. The ocean water transportation has no limitation and it possesses high flexibility.
                          3. Air transport:

  There has been considerable improvements and progress in the mode of transport by air. This is the fastest mode of transport flying at more than 300 km per hour to a modern speed which is nearly 3 times the speed of sound.
       The airport consists of the three terminals:
                 1. Domestic 2.International 3. Cargo
  At Domestic Terminal the departure section has 20 check – in counters four aerobridges and 3 boarding Gates. It also has restaurants, book shops, retail outlets and a VIP lounge. The arrival section has three luggage belts, a snack counter bureau Due change ground transport desks and a VIP lounge.
                           International Terminal:
   In an international Terminal there are 15 check – in counters. The departure hall has a restaurant o r Duty- Free shop, a book- cum- gift shop and other basic amenities. The arrival hall consists of 1 entry gate, 2 luggage belt, bureau de change and a snack stall. A new international Terminal is under construction. Once complete it will be double the size of the present terminal. The state government is also looking into a new international airport at Fedara near the port town of Dholera in the Gulf of Khambhat.
   In 1988 Air India also took delivery of two Boeing 747- 300 MS passenger- cargo configuration.

Land transport-Book Highway engineering, Writer A.K. Upadhyay

Water & Air transport-Book Airport engineering, Writer Rangwala

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