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Types of water demand

              Types of water demand

The following are the various types of water demand of a town or city:

              1.Domestic demand


The domestic demand includes the water required in the houses for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing of clothes and utensils, sanitary blocks, private vehicles, gardening, etc. The requirement of water for domestic animals is also included in this demand. In Indian towns or cities,  the domestic consumption of water under normal condition is taken as 135 lits/day/capita  ( as per I.S: 1172- 1971). In developed countries, the water demand is very high due to their advanced lifestyle.

               2.Commercial demand


It includes the water demand in commercial centres like the office building, hotels, restaurants, shopping centres, cinema houses, motor garages, laundries, diaries etc. For this purpose, the demand is assumed as 25 lits to 40 lits. capita/day.

               3.Industrial demand

The industrial demand for water depends on the type of industry in the area. The number and type of industries such as cloth mill, paper mill, cotton mill, sugar mill, chemical industry, hume pipe, rolling mill, etc. should be recorded. The water demand for this purpose is generally assumed as 20% to 25% of the total water demand of the city or town.

                  4.Public demand


It includes the water requirement for public places such as public sanitary blocks, parks, swimming pools, etc. The water demand for this purpose is considered as 5% of the total consumption of water in the town or city.

                  5.Fire demand

In case of any outbreak of fire in busy areas of a town or city, sufficient quantity of water may not be available for fire-fighting from the surface sources such as Pounds, ditches, open wells etc. Again these sources may not exist within busy areas of the town or city. Hence, the requisite amount of water for fire-fighting should always be kept is stored in underground reservoirs in specific places and fire hydrants should be established in main pipelines at an interval of about 100 m to 150 m. In the event of a fire, the fire brigade pump is connected to the Fire hydrant and the jet of water is thrown under high pressure over the fire.

Book-Environmental Engineering, Writer-N N Basak

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Historical development of roads in India



The history of the development of road construction is linked with the history of human civilization. The first and oldest mode of travel was footpath with people found the most convenient and the shortest way to approach to their hunting and fishing ground. People use tamed animals for transport which required bridle paths of greater width and heights. After the invention of the wheel, animal-drawn carts continued to be the popular mode of transport for quite a long time. This had necessitated providing hard surfaces for wheeled carts. The first hard surface was discovered in Mesopotamia at about 3500 B.C. A brief review of road development in India is given below.

                 Roads in Ancient India


The excavations of Mohenjodaro and Harappa have established the existence of roads in India at about 3500 B.C. As per the early records,  in early periods the roads were mainly for administrative and military purposes. During Aryan period in 400 B.C., there were “Mahapathas” as a means of communications as referred in Rig Veda ( part 1, para 5). Kautilya the first Prime Minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya laid down rules in his book titled  Arthasastra. Rules have been mentioned regarding the depth of roads for various purposes and for different types of traffic. The punishment for obstructing roads have also been mentioned. At the beginning of 5th century, the roads had been improved by Emperor Ashoka.

                 Roads in Mughal Period


The roads were greatly improved in India during the Mughal period. Many of the highway built or maintained by Mughals received great appreciation from the foreign visitors. The road from Delhi to Daulatabad was constructed by Muhammad Tughlaq. The roads from Agra to Allahabad and from Ujjain to Bijapur were constructed by Muslim emperor.

                   Roads in British Period


The period covering the decision the decline of the Mughals and the beginning of the British rule was a period of neglect of the road system. During this period,  the condition of roads deteriorated. The early British interest was only in maintaining roads of military importance. William Bentinck took steps to build the modern Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta to Delhi with permanent bridges and good stones. Lord Dalhousie gave further Momentum to road construction by forming the P.W.D in place the military board in 1885. With the development of Railways, the attention of the government was shifted from road development. The work of road construction and maintenance was given secondary importance. Major Roads,  except those of military importance, were neglected and attention was mainly on the feeder Roads.

                   Appointment of   Jayakar Committee

In 1927, the central government appointed Indian road development committee under the chairmanship of M.R. Jayakar to report on the condition of the existing road and to suggest ways and means for their future development. The Jayakar committee submitted its report on 1928 with the recommendations that since the provincial governments and the local bodies unable to look after all the roads, the road development in the country should be taken up by the central government.

Historical development of roads, Book-Highway Engineering, Writer-A.K. Upadhyay

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Transportation, Highway, Waterway, Airway

The term transport is derived from latin word Transportare that is trans over and portare means to carry thus transport means to carry from one place to another. the term transportation idicates a Means or system of convenience and it is thus an act of transporting. 

      It is difficult to imagine those all days when people lived in a distance and could not reach to their relatives easily. The introduction of transport facilities in the modern age has narrowed down the distance between various parts of the country or world.
                         Modes of transport
  1. Land transport 2. Water transport 3. Air transport


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What is Hydrology & Hydrologic cycle


 The science of studying the different forms of water available above the earth surface or below the earth surface is known as hydrology. Even Hydrology includes those portion of the  science which deals with the estimation of runoff and its transportation from one place to another.

                            Importance of Hydrology

 The study of Hydrology is useful for the design and operation of engineering projects for the  control and use of water. The knowledge of hydrology is very essential for the applications:

(a). Determination of the capacity of a reservoir from the rainfall records and the yearly discharge  observation of a river.

(b). Determination of peak flow of a river.

(c). Determination of suitable site for hydro-electric power generation.

(d). Sources of water supply in a town or city.

(e). Methods to be adopted for the flood control.

                                  Hydrologic cycle


  The water from the surface sources like lakes, rivers, ocean, etc. converts to vapour by evaporation  due to solar heat. The vapour goes on accumulating continuously in the atmosphere. This vapour is  again condensed due to the sudden fall of temperature  and pressure. Thus clouds are formed.  These clouds again causes the precipitation (i.e Rainfall).Some of the vapour is converted to ice at  the peak of the mountains. The ice again melts in summer and flows as rivers to meat the sea or  ocean. These processes of evaporation, precipitation and melting of ice go on continuously like an  endless chain and thus a balance is maintained in the atmosphere. This phenomenon is known as                  Hydrologic cycle.

                   Component of Hydrologic cycle

     1 . Evaporation

     2 . Transpiration by plant

     3 . Condensation

     4 . Precipitation

     5 . Interception

  1. Infiltration

     7 . Ground water flow

     8 . Surface flow

 Hydrology & Hydrologic cycle – Book Irrigation Engineering,   Writer – N N Basak

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